Effects of Automated Vehicle Models at the Mixed Traffic Situation on a Motorway Scenario
There is consensus in industry and academia that Highly Automated Vehicles (HAV) and Connected Automated Vehicles (CAV) will be launched into the market in the near future due to emerging autonomous driving technology. In this paper, a mixed traffic simulation framework that integrates vehicle models with different automated driving systems in the microscopic traffic simulation was proposed. Currently, some of the more mature Automated Driving Systems (ADS) functions (e.g., Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Keeping Assistant (LKA), etc.) are already equipped in vehicles, the very next step towards a higher automated driving is represented by Level 3 vehicles and CAV which show great promise in helping to avoid crashes, ease traffic congestion, and improve the environment. Therefore, to better predict and simulate the driving behavior of automated vehicles on the motorway scenario, a virtual test framework is proposed which includes the Highway Chauffeur (HWC) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication function. These functions are implemented as an external driver model in PTV Vissim. The framework uses a detailed digital twin based on the M86 road network located in southwestern Hungary, which was constructed for autonomous driving tests. With this framework, the effect of the proposed vehicle models is evaluated with the microscopic traffic simulator PTV Vissim. A case study of the different penetration rates of HAV and CAV was performed on the M86 motorway. Preliminary results presented in this paper demonstrated that introducing HAV and CAV to the current network individually will cause negative effects on traffic performance. However, a certain ratio of mixed traffic, 60% CAV and 40% Human Driver Vehicles (HDV), could reduce this negative impact. The simulation results also show that high penetration CAV has fine driving stability and less travel delay.