Position and attitude determination in urban canyon with tightly coupled sensor fusion and a prediction-based GNSS cycle slip detection using low-costiInstruments
We present a position and attitude estimation algorithm of moving platforms based on the tightly coupled sensor fusion of low-cost multi baseline GNSS, inertial, magnetic and barometric observations obtained by low-cost sensors and affordable dual-frequency GNSS receivers. The sensor fusion algorithm is realized by an Extended Kalman Filter and estimates the states including GNSS receiver inter-channel biases, integer ambiguities and non-GNSS receiver biases. Tightly coupled sensor fusion increases the reliability of the position and attitude solution in challenging environments such as urban canyons by utilizing the inertial observations in case of GNSS outage. Moreover, GNSS observations can be efficiently used to mitigate IMU sensor drifts. Standard GNSS cycle slips detection methods, such as the application of triple differences or linear combinations such as Melbourne–Wübbena combination and the phase ionospheric residual extended TurboEdit method. However, these techniques are not well suited for the localization in quickly changing environments such as urban canyons. We present a new method of tightly coupled sensor fusion supported by a prediction based cycle slip detection technique, applied to a GNSS setup using three antennas leading to multiple moving baselines on the platform. Thus, not only the GNSS signal properties but also the dynamics of the moving platform are considered in the cycle slip detection. The developed algorithm is tested in an open-sky validation measurement and two sets of measurement in an urban canyon area. The sensor fusion algorithm processes the data sets using the proposed prediction-based cycle slip method, the loss-of-lock indicator-based, and for comparison, the Melbourne–Wübbena and the TurboEdit cycle slip detection methods are also included. The obtained position and attitude estimation results are compared to the internal solution of raw data source GNSS receivers and to the observations of a high-accuracy GNSS/INS unit including a fiber optic gyro. The validation test confirms the proper cycle slip detection in an ideal environment. The more challenging urban canyon test results show the reliability and the accuracy of the proposed method. In the case of the second urban canyon test, the proposed method improved the integer ambiguity resolution success rate by 19% and these results show the lowest horizontal and vertical coordinate distortion in comparison of the linear combination and the loss-of-lock-based cycle slip methods.